Patriarchy is a conception that is built from the stigma of polarization in which the leadership system is held by men, starting from the smallest perimeter in which the dominant function is the man. Men are superior and this is recognized by most people, men and women. The objectification of women only as complements to the household and not having their own space as leaders is part of patriarchy which, although in this multidimensional era does not close all forms of patriarchal culture, it just stops here. Gender awareness is not fully touched by society and the position of women as sweetening objects whether at home, school or work is still common. The number of women in formal jobs is still low and even far from the percentage of men.
The discussion about women is indeed very contextual and will never end as women have always been an important part of all lifelines. It is not uncommon to find the word woman combined with wealth and the throne which are considered infinite as three important factors in worldly affairs.
In direct comparison to the history of the time of the Prophet Muhammad, in the past, women were also seen as lowly, dwarfed and marginalized. Even then there was a people in Arabia for whom if a mother gave birth to a baby girl it was considered a family disgrace, a burden for which her life had to be killed. Rasulullah Saw strongly criticized this activity because it was a form of discrimination against women/women, therefore the Word of God was revealed through Qs:16:58 – 59 which revealed that women are also a gift from God. It is clear that Islam grants an equal place to women and men, especially in the scientific field.
In social life, there must be reciprocity between individuals with each other. Society is filled with men and women. By nature, the difference between men and women is in the physique, where men are identical with large chests and mustaches. For women, it has its peculiarities, such as breast growth and menstruation every month. The roles of men and women themselves also have their respective functions. When we talk about roles, it’s the same as mentioning gender. Gender is a perception or stigmatization of the roles and functions of men and women. This perception is built from the community which leads to social construction in an area or on a large scale like a country. Gender roles may differ from time to time because times are always changing so society is always changing. Gender is different from sex which is a natural biological condition. Based on historical developments, gender or gender roles previously focused on female blindness. Women are considered soft, emotional, solve problems with tears and uneducated. Meanwhile, men in the stigmatized position of society believe that men are brave, shouldn’t cry, and are more realistic. Things like this are traits that can be reversed from each other. In Islam, when it comes to gender, men and women have their respective roles without giving up one. Allah Swt declared in Qs Al-Hujurat:13 and Qs Al-Qiyamah:39, that Allah Swt created men and women in pairs, both of whom are noble creatures of Allah Swt.
The position of women is now widely recognized as an essential element of a nation’s strategic progress. The stigma that women are inferior creatures to men, marginalized and only in the domestic sphere (household) has now begun to be abandoned. This is due to the development of an advanced era and the countries of the world are competing to become a modern country (welfare state). Where these countries focus on an equal distribution of education, one of which is education on gender equality which is no longer a taboo subject to be disseminated. Thus, women are seen as objects of change for good progress by opening wide opportunities for women to be able to reflect on themselves and explore the potential that exists in themselves so that they are also useful to a nation and to their country. This is what is meant by the multi-dimensional era that considers women not only from one dimension or aspect, but from all existing factors.
In the past, the position of women was in the abyss of infringing on their rights as human beings. Women are bad luck, bearers of disasters and hostages of their space of movement. Look at its history from the time of the prophet, the dark ages, the middle ages, etc. In Qs An-Nisa:34 says that “men are Qawwal and are responsible for women”. Therefore, many commentators give to a blunder (confusion) the meaning of being taken by their adherents that men are superior and dominating creatures. Reflected in the opinion of an expert commentator, engineer Ashgar Ali, he said that the Quran gave the stipulations and benefits of each for women and men. There is an opinion that men are better than women because of the social reality where ordinary men earn their living, hold power and are heads of households.
The passage of the one-dimensional era which initially saw women only in one aspect, that women were only a means of reproduction, complementary objects in the household to help with household chores such as cooking, laundry , breastfeeding and raising children has moved into the multidimensional era As mentioned above. In this more pluralistic era, such stigma has been greatly reduced, when it comes to women where raising and nursing children, it is indeed the nature of a woman that cannot be changed, unlike sex, that always changes. Because women biologically have wombs and breasts to perform their natural duties as women, this means they cannot be replaced by men. Unlike so-called gender roles, such as cooking, washing or raising children, these are roles that can be assumed by both men and women.
Women from an Islamic perspective
Women in an Islamic perspective cannot be separated from talking about how women were created in the first place, which was taken from a historical approach. Beliefs and religions that are classified as part of the beliefs that developed among Arabs i.e. Judaism, Christianity, Islam mention a human called Adam in the form of a human being who is male , created earlier than the opposite sex, namely the female (Eve). In the Quran, the Azbabunuzul of human creation can be traced from several verses, one of which is found in Surah An-Nisa verse 1. The verse explains that men were created before women, Allah SWT created himself and then created his wife. .
In verse 59 of Qs Al-Imran, Allah Swt also reveals how the creation of humans is none other than his permission, men and women can live side by side and perform their duties as rulers on Earth (Malisi , 2012). The creation of humans who represent male and female is also found in the hadith which of course is also a source of law in Islam, in the hadith it commands Muslims to always be kind to women (Prof. Dr. Musdah Mulia, 2014).
The Quran as a guide for Muslims contains arguments regarding the rights of women and their equality with men. Some verses show rights and obligations, some describe the privileges of female figures in the story. Talking about rights Men and women have equal opportunities depending on what was attempted as explained in Surah An-Nisa verse 32. Where this verse explains that Allah Swt has divided the portion equally for men – men and women, everything must be balanced with effort. Indeed, what is happening in the present time has not been entirely smoothly realized from what is said in the Quran. Islam does not look at what is superior or inferior to humans but all are equal before Allah swt and Islam never belittles the dignity of women the position of women can also be leaders and seek knowledge as high as men. This era very flexible, really supports what has been regulated in the Koran on women to implement, because today’s space is more plural.
Nowadays, the position of women is more strategic and more profitable for women as well. How can this condition be reversed from a woman’s position that was so bleak to a brilliant position as it is today, as it is also supported by education and women’s resistance movements against previous gender inequality (feminism). Feminism is a women’s emancipation movement that demands equality and equal rights between men and women. This movement appeared at the end of the 18th century which moved away from discrimination against women and feminism was present as a form of resistance. The emergence of a critical awareness of this oppression culminated in the recognition of the protection of women worldwide through the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (Cedaw ).
Essentially, women are creatures that are glorified by Allah Swt. But some people think that women and Islam cannot be united because it is seen as placing too many limits on women.
The nature of women or women before, was indeed created to accompany the prophet Adam because, so many people interpret it with a language that is not open/conservative in religion (especially Islam) which ends up say the woman’s place is a sink, kitchen and Mattress As mentioned before. This correlates with the societal stigma that is built where men are seen as established and successful if they have mastered three important aspects of the world namely wealth, throne and women. In this multidimensional era, such opinions have begun to diminish due to the progress of time and education on gender equality. Awareness is starting to grow everywhere.
The way of thinking is too sentimental towards Islam should be reduced or even eliminated. If we examine further, what we find in Islam towards women is protection. We can see how much damage is done because women violate the boundaries that have been established in Islam. Although the original purpose of Allah Swt creating women was to accompany men, but in Islam Allah Swt also enhances the rights and honors of women or women themselves. It is Allah Swt, his nature is almighty, but power here does not mean arbitrarily. Because Allah Swt is very just. So that Allah may have power over His justice.